Evaluation of Different Methods for Voltage Sag Source Detection


  • Boštjan Polajžer
  • Gorazd Štumberger
  • Sebastijan Seme




Power – System, Power – Quality, Voltage Sag, Source, Detection


This paper compares and evaluates three different methods for voltage sag source detection. First method (method I) is based on the assumption, that the energy flow at the monitoring point increases during downstream events and decreases during upstream events. Second and third method (methods II and III) are both based on the assumption that currents measured at the monitoring point increase during downstream events and decrease during upstream events. The slope of a current-voltage trajectory is investigated in method II, while a real current component is observed within method III. Both current-based methods (II and III) require fundamental harmonic components of sampled voltages and currents, which are extracted using discrete orthogonal series expansion, such as Fourier or Walsh. Algorithms of this type are especially appropriate for studying steady-state and periodically repeating conditions. Voltage sags are, on the contrary, transient disturbance events. Thus, usage of the discussed algorithms may not be appropriate. Furthermore, criteria within methods II and III are checked for each phase individually. In the cases of asymmetrical voltage sags exact interpretation of the obtained results, therefore, might not be possible. Method I is, on the contrary, based on instantaneous values of line voltages and currents, while three-phase criterion is used. An exact interpretation of the results obtained by this method is, therefore, also possible in cases of asymmetrical voltage sags. All the discussed methods for voltage sag source detection have been tested by applying extensive simulations and field tests. The results for ground faults, asymmetrical voltage sags, upstream events and motor starting have been analyzed in order to evaluate all the discussed methods. The obtained results show that all discussed methods are very successful in cases of heavy motor starting and other symmetrical voltage sags. In cases of asymmetrical voltage sags the methods II and III do not work well, especially for those originating from the upstream side, while the method I is not successful only in particular cases of voltage sags due to upstream ground faults. Based on the performed evaluation it can be concluded, that further development is still needed to increase the degree of confidence in the discussed methods.


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