Electromagnetic compatibility in various kinds of substations in Croatian transmission networks and mitigation measures


  • Srećko Bojić
  • A. Sekso Telento
  • I. Dolić




Electromagnetic compatibility, High voltage, Substation, Transmission network, Mitigation measure, Disconnector, Switching operation, Measurements, Statistical analysis


In the last two decades have been studied the conditions of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in different kind of substations in transmission networks of Croatia. Investigations have been done by measuring method using special measuring technique and also by computing simulations. In this paper will be shown conditions of EMC which have been studied by measuring method during normal or fault switching operations of disconnectors and circuit breakers. Conditions of EMC with particular stress on transient voltages in secondary circuits within various kind of transmission network objects have been carefully studied (AIS, GIS, old and new substation design type, rated voltages from 110 kV to 400 kV). In the paper will be given the review of some main data from those investigations made in the long period of time. Then main findings will be given and the differences in EMC conditions will be shown taking into account various parameters such as: design details of substations (distances, cable types, protective measures etc.). Also, it will be given a review of measuring methods and tools (oscilloscopes with low and deep acquisition memory, statistical tools for data processing, etc.). Generally, it was shown that overvoltatges in secondary equipment follows normal or Gaussian statistical distribution from which some typical data have been taken, such as 98% - probability values etc. Consequently, different kind of the mitigation measures have been proposed in cases of high overvoltages in secondary circuits. Typically, changes in earthing systems, in cable sheets connections etc. have been proposed to utilities. All proposed measures have been tested by measuring methods too and the effects have been very satisfactory in ensuring EMC conditions within substations. Some most interesting ways in reducing high level of TEVR in GIS substations will be shown in pictures. Given results and effects of mitigation measures in Croatian transmission network substations clearly show that the best method is experimental investigation which usually was followed by some necessary mitigation measures which ensure the conditions of EMC within substations according to international standards and recommendations.


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