An EMTP Extension for Computing Earthing System Transient Step and Touch Voltages


  • Slavko Vujević
  • P. Sarajčev



Average potential method, ATP-EMTP, Earthing grid, Lightning analysis, Step and touch voltages


This paper presents a novel technique for computing dangerous voltages due to lightning transients imposed on earthing system, which is based on the use of the well-known ATP-EMTP software package. Earth surface transient potential distributions, as well as step and touch voltages computations, are performed through extending the widely used EMTP software package with a new post-processor (computer program), developed especially for that purpose. The earthing grid is approximated by the circular cross-section conductors. In numerical model, conductors are subdivided into segments (1D finite elements) and Clark's model with distributed constant parameters is then applied. Leakage conductance of conductor segments is modeled in EMTP as an additional lumped parameter. Analytical expressions for distributed and lumped segment parameters are derived using the average potential method. Due to the limitations of the EMTP, EM coupling between segments is neglected. The earth model is limited to the homogenous earth. Soil ionization effect is not accounted for, but could be incorporated, through some modifications of algorithms. Lightning surge model used is based on the Heidler's model of current source.


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